Tourette syndrome is a neurological disorder which causes people to make involuntary sounds or movements. These habitual actions and sounds are more commonly known as “tics”. Scientists don’t really know what causes it, but the most widely accepted understanding is that the condition is the result of an imbalance in the “inhibitory” and “excitatory” activities in specific brain circuits. This imbalance creates jumbled “noisy” messages which get mixed up in the brain.
Tourette’s usually first presents in childhood, so it is something that can be diagnosed early. Treatment usually involves behavioral therapy and occasionally drugs that help to suppress the tics.