Hayv Kahraman was in her fourth grade history class in Baghdad when the question was asked: Is Iraq a democracy or a dictatorship? Not knowing what either word meant, she guessed “dictatorship.” This proved to be the wrong choice, no matter how right the answer was: the next day she was punished with a ruler in front of the other students.
Wattania. This image recreates a scene from Kahraman's childhood Wattania, or History, class. Photo courtesy of the artist and Jack Shainman Gallery, New York.